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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 18-22

Effect of sliding wear mechanism condition on the wear behavior of dental biocomposite materials


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kilis 7 Aralik University, Kilis, Turkey

Date of Web Publication28-May-2020

Correspondence Address:
Efe Çetin Yilmaz
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kilis 7 Aralik University, Kilis
Turkey
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/dmr.dmr_2_20

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  Abstract 


Background: The purpose was to study the effect of sliding condition on the wear behavior of nanofilled composite material under two-body wear test mechanism. Materials and Methods: In this study, a supreme composite material with nanofiller was subjected to abrasion test procedures' in vitro conditions. In this study, the test samples were divided into two groups and subjected 50 N wear force, 1.6 Hz wear frequency, 240,000 wear cycles, constantly 37°C temperature, and 0.3 mm and 0.6 mm sliding conditions through wear test procedures, respectively. The volume loss in the wear area of the test samples after the wear test procedures was analyzed using a noncontact three-dimensional profilometer. In addition, microstructure analysis was performed by selecting random test samples from each group using scanning electron microscopy. Results: As per the data obtained during this study, with an increase in the amount of lateral movement, the volume loss in the composite material had also increased after wear test procedures. Conclusion: However, the increase in volume loss in the wear area of the composite material did not show a linear relationship with the amount of lateral movement.

Keywords: Biocomposite, sliding wear, volume loss, wear


How to cite this article:
Yilmaz EÇ. Effect of sliding wear mechanism condition on the wear behavior of dental biocomposite materials. Dent Med Res 2020;8:18-22

How to cite this URL:
Yilmaz EÇ. Effect of sliding wear mechanism condition on the wear behavior of dental biocomposite materials. Dent Med Res [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 3];8:18-22. Available from: http://www.dmrjournal.org/text.asp?2020/8/1/18/285208




  Introduction Top


It is important to perform mechanical and static tests of biomaterials in the laboratory because of the ability to accurately predict various mechanic behaviors of biomaterial in living tissue. It is widely used in the restoration of cutting and grinding teeth due to the similarity of natural tooth structure, easy processability, and improved mechanical capabilities of light-curing dental composite materials.[1],[2],[3] Composite materials have been steadily improving in the field of dentistry since the 1960s and have gradually increased in use as dental biomaterials.[4] In this area, studies of the mechanical behavior and properties of various dental restorative materials are interesting research topics for dentists and researchers.[5] There are several difficulties with the properties of dental restorative materials, and obtaining an ideal dental restorative material is an ongoing research topic. In particular, the properties of an ideal restorative material are classified as: (a) mechanical properties, (b) application, (c) biocompatibility, and (d) esthetics. However, the development and application of new restorative dental materials depends on a comprehensive understanding of the response of existing dental materials to static and dynamic loads.[5] The improvements made on composite materials are important for their use as biomaterials. Their introduction to the market allowed their indications to expand to larger posterior restorations, which are classic only restored with amalgams. Most of the improvements are mainly focused on filler systems that lead to improvements in mechanical properties and especially wear resistance.[4]

Wear mechanisms in oral tribology can be defined as the gradual loss of volume after contact of the tooth or dental materials caused by a certain bite force. During the chewing process, physical separation mainly occurs due to microfracture and chemical dissolution and creates signs of wear on the eroded surface characteristic for abrasive wear mechanisms. Many mechanical behaviors such as the surface characteristics, elasticity module, and hardness of the dental materials preferred in the intraoral tribology, will have a positive or negative effect on the wear resistance. Restorative composite materials should be based on a harsh environment that varies from patient to patient.[6] Chewing forces, occlusal habits, dietary factors, humidity, and temperature fluctuations contribute to uncontrollable factors that can affect the life of the materials.[6] For the evaluation of dental materials, well-done randomized controlled clinical trials are considered the best method to evaluate the quality of new systems. However, there are many limitations that do not allow the routine use of this type of work.[7] First, factors such as operator variability, substrate differences, patient compliance, and recall errors complicate these tests and make it impossible to standardize.[7] Second, clinical research is costly and time-consuming, so it is very important to understand that clinical achievements need to be predicted easily, quickly, and realistically, while adopting the view that dental materials are developing rapidly.[6] Therefore, the development of in vitro chewing laboratory environment experiments is extremely important.In vitro chewing motion laboratory environment experiments (such as two/three-body and corrosive wear mechanisms) have been developed in many studies in the literature.[8],[9],[10]

During the analysis of the development period of composite materials, in the early 2000s, the development of an organic matrix was based only on methacrylate chemistry, but to date, the development is based more specifically on BisGMA, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and BisEMA.[4] It has been observed that a composite material placed in the mouth is subjected to complex and continuous mechanical loads during the chewing movement. These mechanical loads are focused on reducing undesirable stresses in the matrix structure of the composite material and exhibiting similar elastic behavior on the counter material (human tooth). The novel monomers obtained by these improvements in the matrix structure of the composite material could be obtained either by ring-opening polymerizable fractions (Filtek LS, which is the only commercial example based on silorane chemistry) or higher molecular weight molecules that proved to be successful in reducing the molar shrinkage coefficient.[4] Although a variety of composite biomaterials have been developed and used as restorative dental materials, there are little data on the dynamic behavior of the materials. The objective of this study was to study the effect of sliding condition on the wear behavior of nanofilled composite material under two-body wear test mechanism.


  Materials and Methods Top


In this study, the mechanical and chemical properties of the tested composite material are summarized in [Table 1] (information provided by material manufacturers). In this study, five test samples of 2 mm weight × 7 mm diameter were prepared for each test group of composite material. [Figure 1] shows the schematics of the wear simulation test device. Half of the specimens of each test group were loaded with a sliding movement of 0.3 mm, and the other half was loaded with a sliding movement of 0.6 mm through wear test procedures. The test samples were divided into two groups and subjected 50 N wear force, 1.6 Hz wear frequency, 240,000 wear cycles, and constantly 37°C temperature. Composite test specimens' wear volume loss was determined using a three-dimensional (3D) noncontact profilometer. In addition, microstructure analysis was performed by selecting random test samples from each group using scanning electron microscopy.
Table 1: Mechanical and chemical properties of the tested composite material

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Figure 1: (a) artificial chewing unit (b) loading by the chewing force (c) lateral movement mechanism d) the setup of chewing loading

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  Results Top


In this study, nanofilled supreme composite material had wear volume loss of about 2.13 (0.75) mm3 for 0.3 mm and about 3.19 (0.81) mm3 for 0.6 mm sliding condition after wear test procedures.

[Figure 2] shows the supreme composite material microstructure for 0.6 mm sliding condition after wear test procedures. Wear analysis of composite biomaterials used in the human body under in vitro conditions can be evaluated by many different methods such as contact or contactless profilometer device, digital microscope, optical sensor, and laser scanning. These methods can have advantages and disadvantages. In a study in the literature, using different methods such as profilometer, optical sensor, and laser scanning, the biomaterial's volume loss and abrasion depth variables were evaluated after wear test protocols.[11] As a result, it has been found that both the depth of wear and the volume loss of the surface wear area in the lateral axes are significantly related to each other. In this study, wear analysis was done using a 3D noncontact profilometer device; the depth of wear and the area of wear on the lateral axes were correlated after chewing test procedures. [Figure 3] shows an example of supreme composite material wear area volume analyses using a 3D noncontact profilometer Vision 64 program (for 0.6 mm sliding wear condition). When [Figure 2] and [Figure 3] are examined, it will be seen that a protective organic matrix layer is formed during the wear of the composite material, thereby preventing further loss of volume of the material after wear test procedures. [Figure 4] shows the presence of microcracks and material transport in the microstructure of the supreme dental biocomposite material after chewing test procedures (for 0.6 mm lateral movement wear mechanism).
Figure 2: Supreme composite material microstructure for 0.6 mm sliding condition after wear test procedures

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Figure 3: Example of supreme composite material wear area volume analyses

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{Figure 2}{Figure 3}
Figure 4: (a) Microcracks, (b) Material Transport in the microstructure of the supreme dental biocomposite material after chewing test procedures

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  Discussion Top


In this study, the wear test simulator was programmed to perform both vertical movement of 2 mm and lateral movement of 0.3 mm and 06 mm, respectively. In literature, many studies have reported that lateral wear under load ranges from 0.3 mm to 1 mm.[12],[13],[14],[15],[16] In wear tests, the change in the lateral movement amount of the abrasive ball will affect the wear area occurring in the material. Therefore, in this study, the amount of lateral movement is selected from the values mentioned in the literature. In the intraoral tribological process, the mechanism of wear of dental composite materials can occur in two stages.[17] First, the wear of the structure of the organic matrix causes surface roughness and loss of volume in the structures of the inorganic structures.[18] Then, particles that separate from the inorganic matrix structure are compressed in a lateral movement during chewing movement, thereby protecting the organic matrix structure. For this reason, it can be said that the structure of the monomer in the composite material will affect the wear behavior and surface roughness. As per the data obtained during this study, with an increase in the amount of lateral movement, the volume loss in the composite material had also increased after wear test procedures. However, the increase in volume loss in the wear area of the composite material did not show a linear relationship with the amount of lateral movement.

Intraoral tribological process has a very complex and continuous structure. It is important to determine the mechanical and esthetic behavior of the biomaterials placed in this structure over time. Because the correct estimation of the mechanical and esthetic behavior of a biomaterial placed in the mouth during the time period will contribute to the formation of a satisfactory treatment process. Many in vivo and in vitro test methods have been developed in the literature to predict the mechanical and esthetic behavior of biomaterials.[9],[17],[19],[20],[21],[22] However, researchers have tended to work toward in vitro testing methods due to the long duration of in vivo studies, high costs, and ethical reasons. It is important to model the complex and continuous structure of the human oral tribological process in in vitro test parameters. For example, the bite force occurring during the chewing movement is a continuous variable and continuous parameter. In the literature, there are many studies in vitro laboratory environment on direct contact (two-body) and abrasive environment (three-body) abrasion testing mechanisms on various biomaterials.[10],[12],[23],[24] In addition, considering the intraoral tribological process, it will be seen that the formation of a thermal exchange cycle in direct contact wear is inevitable during chewing tests. However, some studies in the literature have neglected the effect of thermal cycle change process on wear mechanisms within the intraoral tribological process.[21],[25] In this study, the thermal cycle parameter is ignored in order to examine the direct effect of the lateral movement mechanism condition on the wear resistance of the supreme biocomposite material.


  Conclusion Top


Within the scope of this study, the following evaluations were made with the data obtained in the laboratory chewing test procedures.

  • With an increase in the amount of lateral movement, the volume loss in the composite material increased after wear test procedures. However, the increase in volume loss in the wear area of the composite material did not show a linear relationship with the amount of lateral movement
  • The organic matrix structure in the matrix structure of the composite material has formed a protective layer on the wear surface with the lateral movement mechanism in the chewing movement. This protective layer prevented the composite material from more wear volume loss with increasing lateral movement
  • In the microstructure of the supreme composite material, it was observed that the matrix structures were fracture in the direction of the lateral movement, and microcracks were formed on the wear surface after chewing test protocols (for 0.6 mm lateral movement) [Figure 4]. These microcracks on the wear surface may have occurred under the surface of the composite material. This is an indication of the fatigue wear mechanism. For this reason, it is important to simulate the fatigue wear mechanism in laboratory environment chewing test procedures in later studies.


Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

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