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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-2

Biocompatibility of materials for dental application

Department of Physiology and Pathology, Araraquara School of Dentistry, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil

Date of Web Publication21-Jan-2015

Correspondence Address:
Lucas da Fonseca Roberti Garcia
Rua Siró Kaku, N° 72, Apto. 73, Bairro Jardim Botânico, CEP: 14021 - 614, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2348-1471.149558

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How to cite this article:
Garcia LR. Biocompatibility of materials for dental application. Dent Med Res 2015;3:1-2

How to cite this URL:
Garcia LR. Biocompatibility of materials for dental application. Dent Med Res [serial online] 2015 [cited 2022 Oct 2];3:1-2. Available from: https://www.dmrjournal.org/text.asp?2015/3/1/1/149558

The main objective of in vitro and in vivo researches and several clinical studies is to validate the biological compatibility of new dental materials and operative techniques. However, part of the in vitro results may, at certain levels, conflict with the results obtained in animals and humans. Laboratory studies which can properly get closer to the clinical reality still are a great challenge to researchers.

Currently, the use of cell cultures is one of the main methods for in vitro studies adopted in laboratorial researches. The most used are those which determine the cell viability, cell death, and cell metabolism tests. These types of tests are developed outside of living organisms; however, the incorporation of several devices to approximate the in vitro conditions to the clinical situation, as enamel and dentin barriers, has significantly increased the results obtained.

It is valid to emphasize that in vitro conditions are not homeostatic, and therefore, the elimination of toxic substances do not occur as in studies involving animals and humans, which hinders to extrapolate the in vitro results to in vivo situations. Furthermore, a living organism has mechanisms of defense and a lymphatic system to remove the toxic substances released.

Despite such limitations, in vitro studies are used as an effective laboratorial research practice due to the speed which they are conducted, reproducibility, the possibility of selecting different types of tests according to the materials to be evaluated, in addition to avoid possible risks to which animals and humans may be submitted.

On the other hand, in vivo tests, although it allows obtaining results closer to the clinical reality, present several difficulties, such as the management of animals and patients, the high cost, the time spent with the experiments, and the ethical problems which often involve these types of experiment. In addition, some circumstances may influence in vivo tests results, such as age, gender, and systemic conditions of the animals and patients.

According to the guidelines of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), in vitro and in vivo studies must be performed following carefully the recommended standards to obtain safe and reliable results. It is important that the researcher keep in mind that the biocompatibility evaluation of dental materials should be strictly conducted to ensure the safety of patients and dentists.

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