• Users Online: 216
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-3

Coronavirus disease-2019: A brief overview

1 Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jizan, KSA
2 Dental Department, AFH, Jizan, KSA

Date of Web Publication28-May-2020

Correspondence Address:
Syed Nahid Basheer
Faculty of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jizan
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/dmr.dmr_11_20

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Basheer SN, Peeran SW. Coronavirus disease-2019: A brief overview. Dent Med Res 2020;8:1-3

How to cite this URL:
Basheer SN, Peeran SW. Coronavirus disease-2019: A brief overview. Dent Med Res [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Jul 23];8:1-3. Available from: https://www.dmrjournal.org/text.asp?2020/8/1/1/285207

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by a newly identified single-stranded enveloped nonsegmented positive-sense β-coronavirus (CoV) RNA virus. This new virus has been called severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first human case was reported in Wuhan, Hubei province of China, in December 2019. Initially, it was referred to as “Wuhan pneumonia” of unknown cause, and the cases were linked to Wuhan city's South China Seafood Market.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6]

Moreover, around the same time, the World Health Organization (WHO) was informed about the new outbreak. By mid-January, the virus was first isolated using human airway epithelial cells and sequenced. Furthermore, around the same time, 17 million people were quarantined; by the end of the month, 1 billion people were quarantined.[7] Around January 31, 2020, COVID-19 was declared a public health emergency in the United States. On March 11, 2020, the WHO classified the outbreak as a pandemic.[2],[8]

The WHO estimates the mortality rate of COVID 19 to be 3.4%, a mortality rate far higher than seasonal flu.[9],[10] However, these estimates are evolving as this mortality rate depicts those who report with the disease. A majority of those affected may experience a mild illness course, recover at home without medical care, and may go unnoticed.[2],[11],[12] The patients who are with comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, moderate to severe asthma, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer have a higher rate of mortality.[13],[11] The overall death rate from COVID-19 rises sharply in the elderly >65 years, while it declines in children aged ≤9 years.[13],[14],[15] The higher mortality rate in patients with underlying diseases and the older adults may be attributed to an increased susceptibility to infection and a predilection to serious outcomes, which may be associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and cytokine storm.[2],[9] However, it should be known that COVID-19 also affects the young, and severe cases are also encountered among young adults.[16],[17],[18] Recently Center for disease control and prevention. (CDC) noted that nearly 40% of those hospitalized with CoV in the US are younger than 55 years and 20% are between 20 and 44 years.[18],[19],[20] A trend also appears that the death rate among men is higher than among women.[21] As new data set in and as our understanding of the disease improves, we will get to implement different methods and tools to prevent, test, and treat the COVID-19 patients.

The SARS-CoV-2 is assumed to have a maximum incubation period of up to 2 weeks, whereas the average time for the deterioration of symptoms from their onset to the intensive care unit admission is around 10 days.[22] The most common clinical manifestations of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, chest tightness, dyspnea, fatigue, and a small population of patients who appeared with gastrointestinal infection symptoms.[23],[24] Chest radiographs and computed tomography findings showed focal unilateral to diffuse ground-glass opacities within 1–3 weeks, similar to infection with SARS-CoV.[24],[25],[26],[27]

The SARS-CoV-2 has been identified to originate from mammals, particularly from bats similar to all other alpha- and beta-coronaviruses. The SARS-CoV-2 spreads mainly from the respiratory tract with a body of evidence pointing toward sustained human-to-human transmission through respiratory droplets and contact routes.[2],[28],[29] A number of laboratory studies estimate the survival of the virus in the air for 3 to 5 days, while it can remain viable up to 24 h on cardboard and 72 h on plastic and stainless steel.[30],[31]

The suggested drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 can be categorized into antivirals, anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressive therapies, antimalarial drugs, traditional Chinese drugs, and other supportive treatment measures. Chloroquine and some antivirals such as remdesivir have shown promising results in vitro.[32],[33],[34],[35] However, as these drugs are under trails and no antiviral drug has proven to be efficient in the treatment of the disease till date, the suggested treatment remains nonspecific, which includes providing adequate oxygen, nutritional support, and maintaining fluids and electrolyte balances.[15],[36] In addition, no approved vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 exist. However, several trials of vaccines for protection against COVID-19 are underway.[37] Hence, with over 2,203,927 confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 and 148,749 deaths, maintaining physical distancing, staying home, and regular washing of hands, especially after visiting public places, is strictly recommended.[11],[38],[39],[40] Medical professionals are advised to avoid elective procedures and use personal protective equipment with Valved Fold-Flat and molded protection masks which are over 95% effective in anticipated COVID-19 cases.[41] It is appropriate to move to telemedicine in these difficult times and to keep ourselves safe and be serving our patients in the comfort of their homes.[42],[43]

Further, with a lot of misinformation existing on social media and on different spurious websites, we as health-care providers must be careful.[44],[45] Hence, we request our readers, in particular health-care workers, in general, to keep themselves updated and receive information from trusted national and international governmental sources. Some of the useful sites to get the latest information are the following:





  References Top

Sahay M, Kute V, Prasad N. Corona, COVID and kidney transplantation. Indian J Transplant 2020;14:1.  Back to cited text no. 1
  [Full text]  
Guo YR, Cao QD, Hong ZS, Tan YY, Chen SD, Jin HJ, et al. The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – An update on the status. Mil Med Res 2020;7:11.  Back to cited text no. 2
Yin Y, Wunderink RG. MERS, SARS and other coronaviruses as causes of pneumonia. Respirology 2018;23:130-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
Naming the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) and the Virus that Causes it. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/naming-the- coronavirus-disease-(covid-2019)-and-the-virus- that-causes-it. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 13].  Back to cited text no. 4
Lake MA. What we know so far: COVID-19 current clinical knowledge and research. Clin Med (Lond) 2020;20:124-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
Weston S, Frieman MB. COVID-19: Knowns, unknowns, and questions. mSphere 2020;5:e00203-20.  Back to cited text no. 6
Park WB, Kwon NJ, Choi SJ, Kang CK, Choe PG, Kim JY, et al. Virus isolation from the first patient with SARS-CoV-2 in Korea. J Korean Med Sci 2020;35:e84.  Back to cited text no. 7
Somily AM, BaHammam AS. Coronavirus disease-19 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2) is not just simple influenza: What have we learned so far?. J Nat Sci Med 2020;3:79-82.  Back to cited text no. 8
  [Full text]  
Ducharme J, Wolfson E. The WHO Estimated COVID-19 Mortality at 3.4%. That Doesn't Tell the Whole Story. Time; Published 9 March, 2020. Available from: https://time.com/5798168/coronavirus-mortality-rate/. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 13].  Back to cited text no. 9
WHO Director-General's Opening Remarks at the Media Briefing on COVID-19-3 March 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening- remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---3-march-2020. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 13].  Back to cited text no. 10
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2020. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/testing.html. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 13].  Back to cited text no. 11
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) – Symptoms. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2020. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/symptoms.html. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 13].  Back to cited text no. 12
Verity R, Okell LC, Dorigatti I, Winskill P, Whittaker C, Imai N, et al. Estimates of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019: A model-based analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2020;S1473-3099(20)30243-7. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30243-7. Online ahead of print.  Back to cited text no. 13
Mahase E. Covid-19: Death rate is 0.66% and increases with age, study estimates. BMJ 2020;369:m1327.  Back to cited text no. 14
Ludvigsson JF. Systematic review of COVID-19 in children shows milder cases and a better prognosis than adults. Acta Paediatr 2020;109(6):1088-1095. doi: 10.1111/apa.15270. Epub 2020 Apr 14.  Back to cited text no. 15
Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: Implications for IPC precaution recommendations. World Health Organization; 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/modes-of-transmission-of-virus-causing-covid-19-implications- for-ipc-precaution-recommendations. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 16].  Back to cited text no. 16
Fernandes M. Why Children are not Immune to Covid-19. Available from: https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20200330-coronavirus-are-children-immune-to-covid-19. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 15].  Back to cited text no. 17
Gupta S. CNN Chief Medical Correspondent. The Mystery of Why the Coronavirus Kills Some Young People. CNN; 2020. Available from: https://www.cnn.com/2020/04/05/health/young-people-dying-coronavirus-sanjay-gupta/index.html. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 15].  Back to cited text no. 18
Renwick D. Is Coronavirus Hitting Young Americans Harder than we thought? The Guardian; Published 1 April, 2020. Available from: http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/apr/01/coronavirus-young-americans-covid-19. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 15].  Back to cited text no. 19
CDC COVID-19 Response Team. Severe outcomes among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) – United States, February 12-March 16, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:343-6.  Back to cited text no. 20
Resnick B. Scientists are trying to Figure Why COVID-19 hits Some Young, Healthy People Hard. Vox; Published 8 April, 2020. Available from: https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2020/4/8/21207269/covid-19-coronavirus- risk-factors. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 15].  Back to cited text no. 21
Rabin RC. In New York City. The Coronavirus Is Killing Men at Twice the Rate of Women; Published 7 April, 2020. Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/07/health/coronavirus-new-york-men.html. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 16].  Back to cited text no. 22
Baud D, Qi X, Nielsen-Saines K, Musso D, Pomar L, Favre G. Real estimates of mortality following COVID-19 infection [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 12]. Lancet Infect Dis 2020;S1473-3099(20)30195-X. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30195-X.  Back to cited text no. 23
Kotfis K, Skonieczna-Żydecka K. COVID-19: Gastrointestinal symptoms and potential sources of 2019-nCoV transmission. Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2020;40157. doi: 10.5114/ait.2020.93867. Online ahead of print.  Back to cited text no. 24
Habibzadeh P, Stoneman EK. The novel coronavirus: A bird's eye view. Int J Occup Environ Med 2020;11:65-71.  Back to cited text no. 25
Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study. Lancet 2020;395:507-13.  Back to cited text no. 26
Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020;395:497-506.  Back to cited text no. 27
Shi H, Han X, Jiang N, Cao Y, Alwalid O, Gu J, et al. Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis 2020;20:425-34.  Back to cited text no. 28
Velavan TP, Meyer CG. The COVID-19 epidemic. Trop Med Int Health 2020;25:278-80.  Back to cited text no. 29
Rationale use of Personal Protective Equipment for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) and Considerations during Severe Shortages. World Health Organization; 2020. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/331695/WHO-2019-nCov-IPC_PPE_use-2020.3-eng.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 16].  Back to cited text no. 30
van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med 2020;382:1564-7.  Back to cited text no. 31
Callaway E, Cyranoski D. China coronavirus: Six questions scientists are asking. Nature 2020;577:605-7.  Back to cited text no. 32
Rabby II. Current drugs with potential for treatment of COVID-19: A literature review. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2020;23:58-64.  Back to cited text no. 33
Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res 2020;30:269-71.  Back to cited text no. 34
Vincent MJ, Bergeron E, Benjannet S, Erickson BR, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, et al. Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread. Virol J 2005;2:69.  Back to cited text no. 35
Carvalho T. COVID-19 Research in Brief: 4 April to 10 April, 2020 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 10]. Nat Med 2020;10.1038/d41591-020-00009-x. doi:10.1038/d41591-020-00009-x.  Back to cited text no. 36
National Institutes of Health Clinical Trial of Investigational Vaccine for COVID-19 Begins. National Institutes of Health (NIH); 2020. Available from: https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nih-clinical-trial-investigational-vaccine-covid-19-begins. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 17].  Back to cited text no. 37
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) – Prevention and Treatment. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2020. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 17].  Back to cited text no. 38
Walter-McCabe HA. Coronavirus pandemic calls for an immediate social work response. Soc Work Public Health 2020;35:69-72.  Back to cited text no. 39
WHO COVID-19 Dashboard. Available from: https://covid19.who.int/. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 18].  Back to cited text no. 40
Hanley B, Lucas SB, Youd E, Swift B, Osborn M. Autopsy in suspected COVID-19 cases. J Clin Pathol 2020;73:239-42.  Back to cited text no. 41
Moazzami B, Razavi-Khorasani N, Dooghaie Moghadam A, Farokhi E, Rezaei N. COVID-19 and telemedicine: Immediate action required for maintaining healthcare providers well-being. J Clin Virol 2020;126:104345.  Back to cited text no. 42
Portnoy J, Waller M, Elliott T. Telemedicine in the era of COVID-19. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020;8:1489-91. [doi: 10.1016/j.jaip. 2020.03.008].  Back to cited text no. 43
Welle D (www. dw.com). Coronavirus and the Fake News outbreak | DW | 02.04.2020. DW.COM. Available from: https://www.dw.com/en/coronavirus-and-the-fake-news-outbreak/av-52999958. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 17].  Back to cited text no. 44
Child D. Fighting Fake News: The New Front in the Coronavirus Battle. Al Jazeera. Available from: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/04/fighting-fake-news-front-coronavirus-battle-200413164832300.html. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 17].  Back to cited text no. 45

This article has been cited by
1 Financial health burden and developing countries in COVID-19
NafeesaKhader Syed,Ruby Khan,Fatma Ahmed
Dentistry and Medical Research. 2021; 9(1): 54
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded208    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal