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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 75-79

Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward social media use in dental education


1 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Government Dental College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Former Intern, Government Dental College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
3 Medical Officer (Dental), Directorate of Health Services, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission23-Jul-2020
Date of Decision12-Aug-2020
Date of Acceptance27-Aug-2020
Date of Web Publication23-Sep-2020

Correspondence Address:
Sayed Abrar
Professor and Head of the Department, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Government Dental College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/dmr.dmr_41_20

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  Abstract 


Introduction: The use of social media has been a revolutionary way of communication, since the past decade. Considering its high level of usage among the younger individuals, social media may provide a unique method of learning for dental students. However, the perception of dental educators on the usage of social media and networking sites is unknown. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental faculty and residents toward social media use in dental education. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Government Dental College and Hospital, Mumbai, from November 2019 to December 2019. The questionnaire was prepared and validated before conducting the study. All the faculty members and the residents of the college were included in the study. The questionnaire was based on three dimensions (knowledge, attitude, and practice) and assessed the views of participants on the social media usage. Results: A total of 65 participants were included in the study, where 32 were faculty members and 33 were residents. The mean age of the participants was 31.52 ± 6.589. Out of the total, 26 (40%) participants were male and 39 (60%) were female. The mean experience of the study participants was 4.71 ± 5.997. The responses were compared between residents and faculty and the responses were similar for most knowledge, attitude, and practice question. The residents were keener on looking forward to developing social media as a primary aid in dental education compared to the faculty (P = 0.029). Conclusion: Due to ease of use and widespread applicability, social media now has a great potential to deliver educational content. This study demonstrates the positive responses of the faculty towards social media usage and further enhances traditional education.

Keywords: Attitude, dental education, knowledge, practice, social media


How to cite this article:
Abrar S, Parmar H, Naviwala GA, Sapkale K, Nabazza S, Ramugade MM. Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward social media use in dental education. Dent Med Res 2020;8:75-9

How to cite this URL:
Abrar S, Parmar H, Naviwala GA, Sapkale K, Nabazza S, Ramugade MM. Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward social media use in dental education. Dent Med Res [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Oct 27];8:75-9. Available from: https://www.dmrjournal.org/text.asp?2020/8/2/75/295870




  Introduction Top


Technology has revolutionized dental education.[1] Social media, including blogs, Instagram, Twitter, wikis, Facebook, Pinterest, YouTube, etc., provides an opportunity for educators to engage undergraduate students who are the members of the millennial generation in active learning while enhancing knowledge and fostering communication.[2] Students can now access vast quantities of information from a variety of sources at their own convenience and from virtually any location.[1] Social media can help enrich the dental students' learning experience by incorporating, photos, videos, lecture series, etc., in their learning routine along with socializing, with their friends colleagues, or seniors.[1]

Social networking can serve as an innovative, engaging approach by facilitating and expanding discussion beyond the traditional classroom, promoting critical thinking, providing collaboration among students and teachers, and assisting with patient education.[2],[3] According to Crook et al., the web-based communities for learning has four key advantages: (1) it enables collaboration among different users, (2) it allows users to create personal content through different forms of media, (3) it permits users to publish individual works, and (4) it creates new approaches to research.[4]

Many dental educators do not feel technologically proficient enough and are concerned with the amount of time needed to become so. Moreover, others fear that students will no longer attend their lectures. However, a recent study found that 90% of students said that adding e-learning methods did not have any effect on whether or not they attended lectures.[5] Moreover, incorporating these technologies could increase student engagement.[1] Despite the rise of social media usage by dental students, there is a significant deficiency of evidence supporting its usage by the teaching faculty. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the dental lecturers' knowledge, attitude, and practice toward using the social media in dental education, which would allow us to work on evidence-based ideologies and implement regulations and instructions according to the same.


  Materials and Methods Top


This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental faculty and residents toward social media usage in the dental education. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Government Dental College and Hospital, Mumbai, from November 2019 to December 2019. The convenience sampling technique was used. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board, Government Dental College and Hospital, Mumbai.

All the faculty members and the residents (Bonded service for 1-year as an Assistant Professor immediately after completion of postgraduation from the same department) of the college who gave their consent were included in the study. The participants who were absent at the time of data collection were approached for the second time. If they were not present for the second time, the participants were excluded from the study. The data collection was done using a structured pro forma.

The questionnaire was prepared and validated before conducting the study. The questionnaire was based on the three dimensions (knowledge, attitude, and practice) and assessed the views of participants on the social media usage. The questionnaire consisted of demographic items (such as age, sex, degree, and years of teaching experience). The questionnaire consisted of 22 items, where 14 items evaluated the knowledge and attitudes of participants toward using the social media in dental education and 8 evaluated the practice. The questionnaire was based on 5-point Likert scale from 1 to 5 depending on the degree of agreement. 1–5 include; no agreement, slightly agree, moderately agree, strongly agree, and completely. For those questions which were negative, this scale was used inversely.

Statistical analysis

Descriptive analysis was carried out by the mean and standard deviation for quantitative variables, frequency and proportion for categorical variables. Quantitative variables were assessed for compliance with normal distribution, by visual inspection of histograms and normality Q-Q plots. Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was used to check the normality of the data. The study group was divided into two groups (residents vs. faculty). Independent sample-t test was used to compare the two groups. The Statistical software IBM SPSS statistics 20.0 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) was used for the analyses of the data and Microsoft word and Excel were used to generate graphs, tables etc.[6]


  Results Top


A total of 65 participants were included in the study, where 32 were faculty members and 33 were residents. The demographic characteristics are mentioned in [Table 1]. The overall response of knowledge, attitude, and practice was computed, and the responses are tabulated in [Table 2]. The responses were compared between residents and faculty and the responses were similar for most knowledge, attitude, and practice question (P > 0.05). The residents were keener on looking forward to developing social media as a primary aid in dental education compared to the faculty (P = 0.029) [Table 3]. There was no difference among the residents and faculty when responses to all the 14 questions related to knowledge and attitude were summed up. Similarly, responses to all the 8 practice questions were summed up, and no statistically significant difference was observed among the residents and faculty [Table 4].
Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the study participants (n=65)

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Table 2: Descriptive statistics (n=65)

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Table 3: Comparison of the responses among professors and residents using unpaired t-test

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Table 4: Comparison of the responses among professors and residents using the unpaired t-test

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  Discussion Top


Social media, by contrast, have been “a category of online media where people are talking, participating, sharing, networking, and bookmarking online. Most social media services encourage discussion, feedback, voting, comments, and sharing of information from all interested parties. It is more of a two-way conversation, rather than a one-way broadcast like traditional media.”[7] Social media have been classified into five groups: (1) collaborative projects such as Wikipedia, (2) blogs or microblogs such as Twitter, (3) content communities such as YouTube, (4) social networking sites such as Facebook, and (5) virtual gaming or social worlds such as second life.[6],[8]

The social media nowadays have a major impact on the personal and professional relationships. The major benefits of using social media for health communication are convenience, user-friendliness, and broadening access of health information to different population groups, students, and patients regardless of age and ethnicity as compared with traditional communication methods. Social media allows users to have peer-to-peer discussions in a way that traditional Web sites do not facilitate. Social media, especially in medical education, acts as a bridge between health professionals, lay public, and patients.[9] Networking with large population, keeping up with the latest dental technologies and availability of evidence-based resources are other virtues associated with social media usage.[8] Dental educators are charged with making students competent in professionalism and ethics.[10] We lack knowledge about the educators perception of social media usage among the students. Therefore, the current research aimed to address the dental educator's knowledge, attitude, and practice related to the social media usage by the dental students.

In the present study, a total of 65 participants (32 faculty and 33 residents) were included in the study. Most participants believed that social media is vital for dental education, especially in ever changing education needs. However, most believed this to be stressful and the traditional dental education was best. Most were in favor of integration of the social media into dental education. Most participants had a social media account. Most participants would not use their social media for the educational purposes. However, the participants recognized the importance of social media usage and looked forward to developing it in their practice. The responses were compared between residents and faculty and the responses were similar for most knowledge, attitude, and practice question (P > 0.05). The residents were keener on looking forward to developing social media as a primary aid in dental education compared to the faculty (P = 0.029). The responses varied in our study. However, most responses were positive for social media usage.

DeBate et al.[11] conducted a qualitative study on the dental and dental hygiene faculty members and the analysis of the data revealed few advantages such as increased student accessibility, student convenience, and ability to provide added depth to course. Whereas, few adoption barriers such as low perceived relative advantage to faculty members, low compatibility with current curriculum, high perceived time commitment, and complexity of e-course development was perceived by the faculty. Javed and Bhatti.[9] in their study determined that a majority of participants agreed that social media plays an effective role in academic performance and can be used for discussing issues related to health, patient care, and treatment. Many studies in the past have seen the positive response of dental students on social media usage.[12],[13],[14] Bahner et al.[15] conducted a pilot project which demonstrated the potential of social media to both supplement and enhance traditional educational methods in medicine. However, the perception and usage of media concerning faculty members are very limited. Arnett et al.[16] cited the most frequent barriers to the use of social media were time (48%) and privacy concerns (48%). In another instance, the benefits and challenges encountered with using YouTube in a nursing course were reported by Green and Hope.[17] Their goal was for nursing students to work collaboratively to create short patient health education videos and display the videos on YouTube, but faculty members cited several challenges including privacy.

This study has several limitations. The convenience sampling technique was used, which was not representative of the population. Furthermore, our study population was collected from single center, with limited sample size which reduced the generalizability of the study. Moreover, the observational nature of the study does not establish a causal relationship between the variables. Despite the above limitations, it is the first study in India to assess the educator's knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding the use of social media among dental students. Large multicentric, randomized-controlled trials will be required to establish a relationship of dental education and social media usage.


  Conclusion Top


Social media in dental education can be valued in many ways. The social media and networking have helped students as well as dental faculties in expanding the knowledge, speeding learning process, and adopt evidence-based practice. Our study showed the positive attitude by faculties and residents on the social media usage. Social media can be integrated into the traditional dental education with proper guidelines in future. However, more research would be required on the subject.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
McAndrew M, Johnston AE. The role of social media in dental education. J Dent Educ 2012;76:1474-81.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ross JG, Myers SM. The current use of social media in undergraduate nursing education: A review of the literature. Comput Inform Nurs 2017;35:338-44.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Peck JL. Social media in nursing education: responsible integration for meaningful use. J Nurs Educ 2014;53:164-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Crook CK, Fisher T, Graber R, Harrison C, Lewin C, Cummings J, et al. Implementing Web 2.0 in Secondary Schools: Impacts, Barriers and Issues; 2008. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265739097_Implementing_Web_20_in_Secondary_Schools_Impacts_Barriers_and_Issues. [Last accessed on 2020 Jul 10].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Billings-Gagliardi S, Mazor KM. Student decisions about lecture attendance: Do electronic course materials matter? Acad Med 2007;82:S73-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Kaplan A, Haenlein M. Users of the World, Unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media. Bus Horiz 2010;53:59-68.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Jones R. Social Media Marketing 101, Part 1. Available from: http://www.searchenginewatch.com. [Last accessed on 2009 Feb 16].  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Spallek H, Turner SP, Donate-Bartfield E, Chambers D, McAndrew M, Zarkowski P, et al. Social media in the dental school environment, Part A: Benefits, challenges, and recommendations for use. J Dent Educ 2015;79:1140-52.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Javed MW, Bhatti R. Usage of social media by medical and dental students at Nishtar medical college, Multan, Pakistan. J Hosp Librariansh 2015;15:53-64.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Henry RK, Pieren JA. The use of social media in dental hygiene programs: A survey of program directors. Am Dent Hyg Assoc 2014;88:243-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
DeBate RD, Cragun D, Severson HH, Shaw T, Christiansen S, Koerber A, et al. Factors for increasing adoption of e-courses among dental and dental hygiene faculty members. J Dent Educ 2011;75:589-97.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Seo CW, Cho AR, Park JC, Cho HY, Kim S. Dental students' learning attitudes and perceptions of YouTube as a lecture video hosting platform in a flipped classroom in Korea. J Educ Eval Health Prof 2018;15:24.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Kenny P, Johnson IG. Social media use, attitudes, behaviours and perceptions of online professionalism amongst dental students. Br Dent J 2016;221:651-5.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Knott PN, Wassif HS. Older and wiser?First year BDS graduate entry students and their views on using social media and professional practice. Br Dent J 2018;225:437-40.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Bahner DP, Adkins E, Patel N, Donley C, Nagel R, Kman NE. How we use social media to supplement a novel curriculum in medical education. Med Teach 2012;34:439-44.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Arnett MR, Loewen JM, Romito LM. Use of social media by dental educators. J Dent Educ 2013;77:1402-12.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Green B, Hope A. Promoting clinical competence using social media. Nurse Educ 2010;35:127-9.  Back to cited text no. 17
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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