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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-June 2021
Volume 9 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-55

Online since Friday, May 14, 2021

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From the Editor Highly accessed article p. 1
Karthikeyan Ramalingam
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Involvement of children and adolescents in dietary counseling carried out by dental health practitioners: Narrative overview p. 2
Wenisa Suliman Arrish, Syed Wali Peeran
The objective was to assess the extent of involvement of children and adolescents in dietary counseling (DC) performed by dental health practitioners. Two online databases PubMed and ERIC were searched using terms “dietary counselling” AND “children” AND “adolescents” AND “oral health” from 2001 to November 2020. Only two studies reported the involvement of children and adolescents in DC performed by dental health practitioners. Dental practitioners are still not prepared well to do dietary consultations with children and adolescents. Further research should be attempted to find the best ways that guarantee full involvement of children in dietary consultations carried out by dental practitioners.
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Ameloblasts in health and disease p. 5
Sandhya Tamgadge, Avinash Tamgadge, Bhagyashree Agre
Ameloblasts are highly sensitive enamel-forming cells. They are derived from ectoderm and undergo a series of transformative changes in their life cycle. The functional efficiency of ameloblasts depends on various factors such as intracellular and extracellular environment, epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, and genetic control. Enamel formation is a well-organized event in the life cycle of ameloblasts. Normal enamel formation is the sign of healthy ameloblasts. The well-being of ameloblasts would be under threat in multiple situations. Internal regulatory mechanisms that are influenced by genetic mutations will lead to abnormal behavior of the cell. Environmental factors such as trauma, infection, exposure to chemicals, nutritional deficiencies, and hormonal dysregulation would affect the cell's normal behavior, which leads to abnormal enamel production. In this article, factors affecting the health of ameloblasts are described briefly.
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Possible association between benign migratory glossitis and fissured tongue with psoriasis: A meta-analysis p. 9
Alberto Rodriguez-Archilla, Saliha El-Ouastani
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory dermatological disease that affects approximately 2% of the population. It is related to geographic tongue (GT) because both present similar clinical, histopathological, and genetic patterns, suggesting that GT could represent an oral manifestation of psoriasis. The objective of this study is to assess the possible relationship between psoriasis and its possible oral manifestations such as GT and/or fissured tongue (FT). A search for the articles on psoriasis and tongue or oral mucosa was performed in the next electronic databases: PubMed (MEDLINE and Cochrane Library), Web of Science, and Spanish Medical Index (SMI). From 175 potentially eligible articles, 151 were excluded for the several reasons: articles without full-text availability (119) and studies without clinical or usable data (32). Finally, 24 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The data were analyzed using the statistical software RevMan 5.4 (The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK). For dichotomous outcomes, the estimates of effects of an intervention were expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Among patients with psoriasis, 8.6% had a GT and 28.2% had a FT. Psoriasis patients were more likely to present both GT (OR: 3.61, P < 0.001) or FT (OR: 2.84, P < 0.001). Regarding the expression of histocompatibility antigens, patients with psoriasis and GT more frequently expressed type B13 and B57 antigens, whereas controls without psoriasis or GT showed more types B15, B17, B40, B58, C04, Cw6, DR5, and DRw6 antigens. Geographical tongue and FT are most often observed in patients with psoriasis.
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Short screening for diabetic foot disease in an omani population at Al-Dahira, Sultanate of Oman: A cross-sectional study p. 16

Objective: This study aims to implement a short primary health-care screening program for diabetic foot disease (DFD) in diabetic patients and to detect the prevalence and predictors of the DFD, to determine their positive risk factors for DFD by identifying patients who have neuropathy or vascular disease, and to examine whether the predictors (neuropathy and vasculopathy) have a significant effect on DFD. Subjects and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study conducted in different diabetic clinics located in health centers across Al-Dahira, Oman. A single, trained clinician from each health center was selected to complete the questionnaire. The sample was randomly selected among subjects already diagnosed as diabetic patients. The study was carried from July 2017 to September 2017. Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients (Type-1 and Type-2) can be affected by DFD. In Al-Dahira, Oman, both Type-I and Type-II DM visited the same clinics. The screening carried out consisted of sections dealing with information of the subjects including their smoking status, number of visits, and details about their diabetic status. A detailed examination of DF was carried over if present in the subjects. The areas that were screened for DF included skin assessment, structural examination of the DF, vascular assessment, neuropathy assessment, as well as DF ulcer assessment. Results: Out of 216 patients, the mean age was 60.56 years (standard deviation 12.74) with a range of 25 years to 97 years. Out of the total patients, there were (164 patients) 75.9% of cases are DFD. However, the prevalence of foot ulcer, gangrene, and amputations were 4.2%. Among the studied subjects, 65.9% had poor glycemic profile value. Most of the patients had a history of diabetes for more than 5 years. The results showed that the age (P = 0.038 < 0.05), physical activity (P = 0.034 < 0.05), and neuropathy (P = 0.33 < 0.05) had an association with DFD. Conclusions: A short primary health-care screening program for DFD in diabetic patients is considered a useful tool and a helpful method to increase the awareness of DFD at the community level. Further, it helps to evaluate the level of the patient's risk for prevention and further management.
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Interfacial micro gaps between dentin bases and hard setting calcium hydroxide liner: A scanning electron microscopy study p. 29
Rabihah Alawi, Amal Mohd Lotfy, Amalina Zakaria, Sam'an Malik Masudi, Nor Aidaniza Abdul Muttlib
Objective: This study is aimed to investigate interfacial micro gaps between bases and hard setting calcium hydroxide liner. Materials and Methods: Twelve sound extracted human maxillary premolars were selected and immersed in 0.1% thymol solution. Samples were subjected to Class I cavity preparations with the width of 2.5 mm buccolingually, 3 mm mesiodistally, and 2 mm depth from the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ). The cavities were lined with hard setting calcium hydroxide lining (Dycal®), (Dentsply, USA) and then divided randomly into two groups. The cavities were restored with smart dentin replacement (SDR®), (Dentsply, Germany) and glass ionomer cement Ketac™ N100 (3M ESPE, USA) for Group 1 and 2, respectively, (n = 6 for each group) up to DEJ level. All samples were then packed with composite resin. Samples were cut longitudinally using a hard tissue cutter (Exact, Japan) and sanded with increasing grit sandpaper (#320, #500, #800, and #1200) for 30 s each and subjected for interfacial micro gaps analysis using scanning electron microscopy. Results: There was a significant difference of micro gap formation between two groups of base materials and hard setting calcium hydroxide (Dycal®) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Lesser micro gap between Dycal® and SDR® compared to Dycal® and Ketac™ N100 suggested SDR® as a better base material to be used with Dycal® for deep caries management.
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Dietary consumption and its association with dental caries in schoolchildren in Benghazi, Libya p. 34
Rasmia Huew, Ahmed Musrati
Introduction: Dental caries is a common public health problem among schoolchildren. Diet can affect oral health via many ways. Several researches have established that dietary factors are directly related to dental caries. Aims: To investigate the prevalence of dental caries in a group of schoolchildren in Benghazi, Libya, and its possible association with gender and diet. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study design was used among public schoolchildren in Benghazi, Libya. A random sample of 12-year-old school children within randomly selected schools underwent dental examination and completed a questionnaire to provide dietary data. This questionnaire was based on the one previously used in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000). Dental caries was assessed using the World Health Organization criteria. Associations between caries and dietary variables under study were investigated through processes of bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results: About 62% had experience of dental caries. A higher experience of caries was observed among girls than boys (Fisher's exact test; P < 0.05). Consumption frequency of sugared drinks and foods was higher in girls (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Over two-thirds of the subjects had dental caries. The high level of dental caries is a cause for concern. Interestingly, more caries was noticed in girls than in boys. Apparently, sugared drinks, which were consumed more by girls, were the main source of total dietary sugared consumption. The consumption of sugared drinks was high, and efforts are required to reduce it.
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Effect of degree of conversion of different resin composite monomers (methacrylate and silorane) on two caries-associated bacteria: “An in Vitro study” p. 39
Marwa Elsheikh, AS Elkady, W Abdel Fatah, Ahmed Musrati
Background and Objectives: The biological response of oral bacteria to dental restorative polymer composites is mediated by the release of unpolymerized residual monomers. The aims of the present study were first, evaluating the effect of composite elutes from methacrylate composite resins and silorane-based composites on two cariogenic bacterial pathogens: Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus and second, determination of degree of conversion (DC) of standardized discs made from the low-shrinkage silorane-based composite (FiltekTM P90) resin and methacrylate-based composite resin (FiltekTM Z350XT nanocomposite, FiltekTM Z350 Flow) using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Materials and Methods: Thirty-six composite specimens were prepared for the agar diffusion test and dissolved in a solvent (dimethyl sulfoxide) to attain a suspension, which was used to assess the effect of the residual monomers from methacrylate composite resins and silorane-based composites on the growth of S. mutans and L. acidophilus. To avoid more dilutions of the specimens, the colonies of bacteria were counted by the naked eye. Thirty composite specimens of 2 mm × 6 mm were polymerized for DC test, and the DC was measured using FTIR, also for unpolymerized composite resin. Results: The growth of S. mutans bacteria was inhibited when cultured with Filtek Z350 Flow composite resin, while the growth of L. acidophilus bacteria was stimulated by the Filtek Silorane p90 and Filtek Z350 Flow composite resin. The DC test with the Filtek Silorane composite resin showed highest DC (58%), then the Filtek Z350XT (Nanocomposite) (42%) followed by the Filtek Z350 Flow (Flowable) showed lowest (35%). Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that composite filling materials have a versatile nature of effect on oral pathogenic bacteria, which could modulate their pathogenesis. Dentists may thus select the appropriate type of composite filling according to the caries susceptibility of patients.
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Detection of antibodies against Prevotella Intermedia in patients with chronic periodontitis and periodontally healthy individuals p. 45
PT Dixitraj, Aarati Nayak, Shruti Bansal, Kishore Bhat
Background: Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology, has bacteria playing an essential role in its pathogenesis. Prevotella intermedia plays an important role in disease initiation and progression. Objectives: The objective was to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against P. intermedia in blood of periodontally healthy individuals and patients with chronic periodontitis and compare their levels. Materials and Methodology: A total of 72 subjects were included, 36 subjects in the healthy group and 36 subjects in the chronic periodontitis group. Subgingival plaque sample and blood sample were obtained from each study subject. Samples were processed in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology. P. intermedia were confirmed using the culture method and serum IgG levels were assessed using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) technique. Comparison between healthy and chronic periodontitis groups was done using independent t-test. Results: IgG levels against P. intermedia were more in the chronic periodontitis group compared to the healthy group, and the difference was statistically significant. Interpretations and Conclusions: Increased levels of IgG antibodies against P. intermedia are associated with periodontal disease. This elevated antibody activity might help to neutralize the effects of the bacterium. IgG antibody level against P. intermedia is a promising indicator in the serological diagnosis of periodontal disease. In chronic periodontitis, the antibody titer in the patient's serum against P. intermedia is raised and could be used as a diagnostic aid.
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Comparative evaluation of platelet count in whole blood and injectable platelet-rich fibrin p. 51
Aarati Nayak, Sachita Shrikant Naik, Aradhana Chhatre, Akanksha Bhatt, Shruti Paradkar
Background: Platelets are formed from megakaryocytes and platelets are present in the circulation for 5–7 days. Platelets are essential in hemostasis, vascular integrity, angiogenesis, inflammation, innate immunity, and wound healing. To capitalize on the advantageous qualities of platelets, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) was developed by centrifuging peripheral blood. A new platelet concentrate has recently been developed, by utilizing lower centrifugation speed. This new platelet concentrate is in an injectable form called injectable PRF (I-PRF). Aim: This study intends to quantify and compare the platelets in whole blood (WB) and I-PRF. Materials and Methods: The study included ten systemically healthy individuals. Seven milliliter of blood was collected by following standard aseptic protocol. Smears of blood and I-PRF were made and stained by Leishman's stain to confirm the presence of platelets. I-PRF was made by centrifuging 5 ml of blood at 1000 rpm for 3 min at 60 g, which was fed to the automated cell counter unit to count the number of platelets. Results: The platelet count in I-PRF was significantly more when compared with that of WB. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that the I-PRF has a richer concentration of platelets when compared to the WB.
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Financial health burden and developing countries in COVID-19 p. 54
Nafeesa Khader Syed, Ruby Khan, Fatma Ahmed
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