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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-December 2020
Volume 8 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 35-81

Online since Wednesday, September 23, 2020

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EDITORIAL  

COVID-19 and its impact on dentistry p. 35
Gulam Anwar Naviwala
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_48_20  
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Etiological factors related to denture stomatitis: A meta-analysis p. 37
Alberto Rodriguez-Archilla, Carolina Garcia-Galan
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_26_20  
Denture stomatitis (DS) is a very common disorder that affects upper denture wearers. Clinically, DS presents erythema and inflammation of the palatal mucosa covered by the denture. The objective of the study was to assess the etiological factors related to DS. A search for articles on etiological factors related to DS was performed in the following electronic databases: PubMed (MEDLINE, Cochrane Library), Web of Science (WoS), and Spanish Medical Index (IME). One thousand five hundred thirty-two articles were found (683 in PubMed, 829 in WoS, and 19 in IME), 340 of them were duplicates. From 330 articles with full-text availability, 306 were excluded for several reasons. Finally, 24 studies were included in this meta-analysis. For dichotomous outcomes, the estimates of effects of an intervention were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) using Mantel–Haenszel method with 95% confidence intervals. Data were processed using the statistical software RevMan 5.3. The most important risk factors for DS were Candida species infection (OR: 5.64,P < 0.001), denture age over 10 years (OR: 5.36, P = 0.02), the existence of denture trauma related to ill-fitting denture (OR: 4.30, P = 0.02), night sleeping with the denture (OR: 4.09,P < 0.001), poor denture cleaning (OR: 2.81, P = 0.02), high carbohydrate intake (OR: 1.83, P = 0.01), and female gender (OR: 1.42, P = 0.02). The most common microorganisms in DS were the Candida albicans fungus and the Stafilococcus aureus bacteria. Infection by species of the genus Candida seems to be the main etiological factor of DS.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Assessment of impact of media, perceived knowledge, fear, and preventive measures associated with coronavirus disease-19 among dental undergraduates p. 43
Avijit Avasthi, Tarun Kalra, Nikita Suri, Shaurya Negi
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_39_20  
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of media, perceived knowledge, fear, and preventive measures on coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) among dental undergraduates. Materials and Methods: A validated 19-item self-administered questionnaire was disseminated to dental students pursuing dentistry from the various academic institutions across India. Participants were enrolled using convenience sampling, and students disseminated the online questionnaire to their contacts using snowball sampling by WhatsApp and E-mail. Data were subjected to the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21.0, Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Descriptive statistics in the frequency and percentage were expressed. The Chi-square test was used to draw the comparison between categorical variables. Results: Out of 501 students, 79.3% females and 20.7% males participated. 54.7% relied on print and social media outlet to receive updated information on pandemic. Greater than 50% respondents had high perceived knowledge about COVID-19. More than one-third respondents felt anxious and feared of contracting infection from asymptomatic carriers. Female students adhered better when compared to males in practicing preventive measures to avoid COVID-19. Conclusion: Exposure to media could be responsible for adopting the preventives measures to avoid COVID-19. Higher perceived knowledge among students might be because of extensive viewing and reading about COVID-19. Certainly students expressed concern of contracting infection accidently and valued their health.
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Patient satisfaction and assessment of reason for seeking root canal treatment in a cost-free hospital setup p. 49
Nanditha Hegde, Aditya Shetty, Raksha Bhat
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_38_20  
Aims: Patient's awareness and knowledge of the treatment is highly essential in everyday dental practice as it significantly influences the treatment outcome. Hence, the objective of this study is to assess the patient's satisfaction with root canal treatment (RCT) under various aspects. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 130 patients in a tertiary care setting using a questionnaire which included pain perceived during the treatment, duration of treatment, esthetics and chewing ability of treated tooth, pleasantness of treatment, and the overall satisfaction. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Statistical Analysis Used: Scores were compared using Kruskal–Wallis test. Results: The level of significance was set at 0.05. Median scores did not show a statistical difference in criteria scores between the teeth (P > 0.05). Among 130 patients, 81 preferred to undergo treatment in our institution due to the superior quality of treatment provided. Seventeen patients felt that the treatment provided was compromised. Of these 17 patients, nine patients reasoned it toward low standards due to cost-free treatment and eight patients felt that it was due to negligence or incompetency of the clinician. Conclusions: Pleasantness and satisfaction from treatment are very high due to a decrease in pain post-RCT, and most of them did not feel that the treatment was compromised in terms of quality or clinicians' negligence or incompetency.
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Acute phase response in anemic patients who received raw liquid extract of the leaves of Solanecio biafrae (wòròwó) to increase their hematocrit p. 54
Mathew Folaranmi Olaniyan, Tolulope Busayo Ojediran, Shedrack Gbenga Olayinka
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_16_20  
Study Background: Solanecio biafrae (wòròwó) leaves contain health benefit phytochemicals and phytonutrients which are being used traditionally to treat ailments. Aim and Objective: This work was therefore designed to determine acute phase response in anemic patients who received raw liquid extract of the leaves of to increase their hematocrit. Materials and Methods: Forty-three (43) individuals with low packed cell volume (PCV) (PCV 27 ± 2.0; Female–22; Male-21; age–18–61 years) and 50 age-matched volunteers with normal PCV (PCV 41 ± 2.0; Female-25; Male-25) who were negative in reaction to Giemsa thick-blood film staining for Plasmodium spp., Stool microscopy for hookworm, Ziehl–Neelsen staining for acid fast bacilli, human immunodeficiency virus, anti-HCV and HBsAg ELISA were recruited from herbal homes in Nigeria. Plasma Haptoglobin, C–reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen were assayed biochemically while PCV was determine by microhematocrit capillary tube method. Results: There was a significant increase in plasma fibrinogen in Volunteers with low PCV after treatment and in control volunteers with normal PCV compared to the value of the parameter obtained before treatment (P < 0.05). There was a significant increase in hematocrit in Volunteers with low PCV after treatment and in control volunteers with normal PCV compared to the value of the parameter obtained before treatment (P < 0.05). There was a significant increase in plasma CRP in volunteers with low PCV before treatment compared with the results obtained in the control volunteers with normal PCV (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There was a significant increase in plasma fibrinogen and hematocrit following the administration of the raw liquid extract while there was a significant increase in CRP in volunteers with low PCV before the administration of the liquid extract of S. biafrae (wòròwó) which signify an increase in acute phase reaction or reactants due to the administration of raw liquid extract and when the hematocrit was low.
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Attitude and response of indian dentists about corona (Covid-19) infection p. 59
Faizal C Peedikayil, Soni Kottayi, Shabnam Ismail
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_8_20  
Background: The coronavirus epidemic, which started in China, has become a worldwide pandemic. Despite global efforts to contain the disease spread, the outbreak is still on the rise, owing to the community spread pattern of this infection. Many countries have gone for a shut down for control of spread. Dental professionals can be infected as well as dental clinics can be a potential source of spread of infection. Therefore, a dental surgeon should be adequatly prepared regarding the spread of the disease. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire was sent to dental surgeons through their professional and social groups. The questions were related to the source of corona (Covid-19) infection, the precautions to be taken by dentists, the work schedule during the lock down period, and also the response and precautions to be taken after the lockdown period. The results were tabulated, and statical analysis was performed. Results: 1235 responses were received.Above 84% of the participants were not practicing during the lockdown period in India. The participants have knowledge of COVID 19 infection mostly through TV and internet sites and social media platforms. There will be a statistically significant increase in the use of personal protective equipments during the postlockdown practice. Most of the participants prefer N95 masks (62%), disposable gowns (54%). Conclusion: The dentists were aware of the problems of the spread of corona COVID 19 and are in the process of having more stringent infection control measures in their practice.
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Medical profile and medication consumption of patients presenting for mandibular third molar surgery: Experience in a Saudi Arabian sub-population p. 65
Ramat Oyebunmi Braimah, Dawood Ali-Alsuliman, Hakeem Olatunde Agbaje, Yahyah Alsalah, Harit Kanwar Sharma, Nahal Mamdoh Alsawas
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_25_19  
Introduction: Extraction of the impacted third molar is one of the most common minor oral surgical procedures carried out in oral surgery clinic. For the medically compromised, the sequelae and possible complications of third molar surgery can be enormous if such medical conditions are not properly identified and managed adequately. Methodology: Patients presenting for mandibular third molar surgery in the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery, specialty dental center, with medical conditions were recruited into the study from 2015 to 2018. Third molar not indicated for surgical removal were excluded. Data such demographics of patient presenting for third molar extractions, indications for third molar removal, pattern of third molar impaction, medical conditions, and medication consumptions were collected from the electronic medical records. Results: A total of 1024 patients presented for mandibular third molar extraction during the study out of which 123 patients were medically compromised with the prevalence of 12%. There were 32 (26%) male and 91 (74%) female with a M:F = 1:2.8. The age ranged from 17 to 69 years with mean (age ± standard deviation) 31.4 ± 9.6 years. Hypertension/diabetes and hypothyroidism constitute the majority of the compromised condition (35 [28.5%] each) closely followed by hyperthyroidism 23 (18.7%), while hypertension alone constitute the least (1 [0.8%]) case. Conclusion: All patients presenting for the removal of impacted third molar should be investigated for medical conditions by first taking a good and complete medical history to avoid conditions that can put the life of patients under serious risk.
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Comparative evaluation of sealing ability of two different biocompatible materials in repair of furcal perforation: An In vitro study p. 70
Rashu Grover, Gunmeen Sadana, Sunil Gupta, Teena Gupta, Manjul Mehra, Buneet Kaur
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_32_20  
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability and microleakage of Biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Repair HP as furcal perforation repair materials. Materials and Methods: Twenty permanent mandibular molars were divided for ten samples each in Group I – Biodentine and Group II – MTA Repair HP. After access cavity preparation, artificial perforation was created and sealed with the repair material. Specimens were suspended in 2% methylene blue dye for 24 h and then split into longitudinal sections. After examining the depth of dye penetration under stereomicroscope, microleakage was calculated. Results: A higher mean microleakage was recorded in MTA Repair HP as compared to Biodentine. Conclusion: The study showed that Biodentine shows maximum sealing ability and least microleakage when compared with MTA Repair HP.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward social media use in dental education p. 75
Sayed Abrar, Harsh Parmar, Gulam Anwar Naviwala, Kishor Sapkale, Surabhi Nabazza, Manoj M Ramugade
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_41_20  
Introduction: The use of social media has been a revolutionary way of communication, since the past decade. Considering its high level of usage among the younger individuals, social media may provide a unique method of learning for dental students. However, the perception of dental educators on the usage of social media and networking sites is unknown. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental faculty and residents toward social media use in dental education. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Government Dental College and Hospital, Mumbai, from November 2019 to December 2019. The questionnaire was prepared and validated before conducting the study. All the faculty members and the residents of the college were included in the study. The questionnaire was based on three dimensions (knowledge, attitude, and practice) and assessed the views of participants on the social media usage. Results: A total of 65 participants were included in the study, where 32 were faculty members and 33 were residents. The mean age of the participants was 31.52 ± 6.589. Out of the total, 26 (40%) participants were male and 39 (60%) were female. The mean experience of the study participants was 4.71 ± 5.997. The responses were compared between residents and faculty and the responses were similar for most knowledge, attitude, and practice question. The residents were keener on looking forward to developing social media as a primary aid in dental education compared to the faculty (P = 0.029). Conclusion: Due to ease of use and widespread applicability, social media now has a great potential to deliver educational content. This study demonstrates the positive responses of the faculty towards social media usage and further enhances traditional education.
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SHORT COMMUNICATION Top

Corona virus disease 2019 pandemic: Strengthening of the health system and mounting an effective public health response p. 80
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
DOI:10.4103/dmr.dmr_36_20  
The Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak initiated with a cluster of pneumonia cases in the Wuhan city and subsequently accounted for a significant caseload in China. The COVID-19 pandemic should not deviate us from the efforts required for the public health authorities to effectively contain the spread of the infection. It is worth noticing that the spread and distribution of the disease has not been uniform, with most of the affected nations have not reported very high number of cases. This is an opportunity for the nations to strengthen their outbreak readiness and emergency response to the outbreak of the disease. In conclusion, the heterogeneous distribution of COVID-19 has given opportunities for the public health authorities to mount a coordinated and concerted response. The need of the hour is to strengthen health systems and implement strategies based on the local case scenario and actively engage the whole of community in the entire response.
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